Contoh Persawahan di Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi (BB Padi), Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan). (Humas Kementerian Pertanian)

Peran Teknologi Tanaman Padi Dalam Menjaga Swasembada Beras Berkelanjutan

SUBANG (Independensi.com) – Inovasi teknologi pertanian terbukti mampu meningkatkan produksi padi. Data Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) menyatakan produksi beras 2018 diproyeksi surplus 2,85 juta ton, padahal lahan baku sawah menyusut menjadi 7,1 juta hektare, dan konsumsi meningkat jika dilihat dari laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang pesat yakni mencapai 12,8 juta jiwa selama 4 tahun terakhir.

Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi (BB Padi), Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan) mengambil peranan penting dalam memunculkan inovasi baik varietas unggul baru (VUB), maupun teknologi budidaya untuk terus meningkatkan produksi. Sejak tahun 1940-an, Kementan telah menghasilkan lebih dari 230 varietas padi, dan 90 persen diantaranya adalah dari BB Padi.

“Secara teknologi, varietas yang dikeluarkan Kementan ini menunjukkan telah siap menggenjot produksi padi dan menjawab tantangan merosornya lahan baku, pertumbuhan penduduk, hingga perubahan iklim,” kata Kepala BB Padi Priatna Sasmita saat dimintai keterangan di kantornya di Sukamandi, Subang pada Sabtu (8/12).

Priatna menyatakan, varietas-varietas tersebut sangat variatif termasuk menjadi pilihan petani yang menanam padi di lahan spesifik. Pilihan, inpari misalnya untuk lahan irigasi, lalu inpara untuk lahan rawa, juga inpago atau padi gogo untuk lahan kering. Padi untuk lahan tadah hujan danp padi dataran tinggi.

“VUB juga mencakup yang bisa antisipatif terhadap perubahan iklim. Misalnya toleran terhadap rendaman, kekeringan, keracunan Al dan Fe, suhu tinggi maupun rendah, dan naungan,” jelas Priatna.

Banyaknya pilihan ini bisa dipakai oleh petani untuk menghasilkan produksi tinggi, toleran terhadap cekaman biotik dan abiotik, pilihan rasa/mutu seperti pulen dan perak, sangat genjah, aromatik, dan juga yang bernutrisi tinggi. “Beberapa contoh bisa menjadi pilihan, misalnya baru baru ini BB Padi sudah meluncurkan Inpari 46 Nutri Zinc yang kaya zat besi untuk mengatasi stunting,” terang Priatna.

Percepat Penyebaran Teknologi

Meski teknologi telah menjawab tantangan, pemanfaatannya di tingkat masyarakat dianggap masih rendah. Priatna menyatakan tantangan ke depan adalah mempercepat diseminasi teknologi ini ke masyarakat. Salah satunya adalah dengan melakukan koordinasi yang lebih baik kepada Ditjen teknis terkait seperti Tanaman Pangan dan Penyuluh.

“Setelah peneliti menghasilkan inovasi, penyebaran teknologi menjadi tantangan selanjutnya. Untuk itu koordinasi dengan ditjen teknis perlu ditingkatkan,” ungkap Priatna.

Peneliti Senior BB Padi Satoto menyatakan saat ini, padi yang digunakan petani umumnya hanya 8 varietas yakni Ciherang, Mekongga, IR64, Situ Bagendit, Inpari 30 Chrg Sub 1, Cigeulis, Ciliwung, Cilamaya Muncul. “Varietas Ciherang masih menjadi favorit, karena sekitar 30 persen petani masih menggunakannya. Data ini menunjukkan penggunaan VUB masih rendah, hanya Inpari 30 yang cukup banyak digunakan,” jelas Satoto yang juga ketua program padi hibrida.

Satoto menjelaskan, rendahnya diseminasi ini bukan hanya terkait hal teknis, tapi juga selera selera masyarakat. Selera dan kebiasaan petani misalnya, sangat beragam dan sulit untuk berubah. Belum lagi terkait dengan selera konsumen, Masyarakat Sumatera Barat dan Kalimantan Selatan misalnya umumnya pilih nasi yang pera.

Peneliti lain, Nurwulan Agustini menyoroti pola adopsi petani yang sering kali setengah-setengah. Adopsi teknologi budidaya Jarwo Super misalnya mengharuskan tanaman penyela, tapi terkadang petani tidak melakukannya terkait biaya dan kemudahan.

Dari sisi bisnis, Manajer Unit Pengelola Benih Sumber (UPBS) Sri Wahyuni menyoroti peran swasta dalam memperbanyak benih padi memprioritaskan pada ketersediaan pasar. “Saat ini produksi benih yang dipakai petani mayoritas diproduksi oleh swasta, sekitar 77 persen. Hanya sebagian kecil yang diproduksi oleh pemerintah,” tukas Sri.

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